St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a type of herbaceous plant from the Bellflower family (Clusiaceae)
Residence in Bulgaria::
It grows all over the country in grassy places, in scrub and clearings, along roads and in fields. About 22 species are found in Bulgaria the doorbell
St. John's wort is a perennial herbaceous plant with a bare stem, strongly spreading in the upper part, with two longitudinal ribs, between 30 and 70 cm high. The leaves are opposite, sessile, oval-elliptical, entire, 1 to 3 cm long. Viewed against the light, they are punctuated (perforated) due to the presence of essential oil reservoirs. The flowers are yellow, collected at the top of the stem in an inflorescence - a panicle. The calyx consists of 5 oblong pointed, free, entire leaflets. The corolla has 5 bright yellow petals, twice as long as those of the calyx. Stamens are many, fused at the base in 3 bundles. The fruit is an egg-shaped three-nested capsule. Blooms from May to September. The popular name of the herb is "Christian кръв" or "miracle worker of Christ". It comes into full bloom around June 24, Midsummer. In many Western countries it is called "St. John's wort".
When collecting St. John's wort, it should not be mixed with other species that look like it: the four-edged the doorbell– Hypericum tetrapterum Fries (Hypericum quadrangulum L.), which has a four-edged hollow stem; the mossy one the doorbell– Hypericum hirsutum L., on which the stem is round, but mossy and without longitudinal ribs, and the sepals, observed under a magnifying glass, have glandular cilia.
The aerial part is collected at the beginning or during the flowering time by cutting the leafy stems with the flowers and buds about 20 cm from the top. Overflowered stems should not be collected.
from May to September.
Composition of the herb:
The plant contains 0.5% hypericin and pseudohypericin, which are condensed anthraquinone derivatives. Also found are the flavonoids hyperoside (about 1%), rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, etc., resinous substances (up to 10%), 5 – 10% catechin tannins, up to 0.10% essential oil – colored green and composed mainly of sesquigerpenes, carotene, nicotinic acid, xanthones, etc.
St. John's wort has diverse and very useful properties. It works anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound healing and antiulcer, tones the nervous system, has highlighted hemostatic effect, improves the perfusion of the heart muscle, strengthens heart activity, slightly lowers blood pressure, there is piss driven effect. The ingredient hypericin has a mild antidepressant action. It is used in the production of many medicinal preparations, such as Esbericum, Remotiv, Doppelherz energie-tonicum N, Sanoral.
Clinical studies in the field of depressive disorders indicate that St. John's wort is well tolerated. Side effects were limited to those of placebo, namely gastrointestinal upset, dizziness, fatigue, and arousal.
The herb's antidepressant properties are thought to be due to inhibition of serotonin reabsorption, similar to most pharmaceutical antidepressants. The fact that St. John's wort is an herb does not mean that it cannot cause side effects similar to those drugs.
In some cases of use, a photosensitivity effect has been reported - this is a state of hypersensitivity to sunlight, which may be accompanied by ultraviolet burns on the skin.
The extract from St. John's Wort (and more precisely the substance Hypericin) interacts with light (visible and ultraviolet) and forms free radicals that interact with important proteins in the eye, the damage of which leads to cataracts. Therefore, it is especially important to wear sunglasses (with UV filter) and avoid exposure to light when taking St. John's Wort.
Like conventional antidepressants, St. John's wort can negatively affect fertility in both sexes. It can also reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
Ways of use:
Internally: 2 teaspoons of finely chopped St. John's wort stalks are infused with 300 ml. boiling water. Leave for 30 minutes. Drink 100 ml each. before meals, three times a day.
Bulgarian traditional usage:
Not to be used by pregnant and lactating women
Carefully appoint to children!
Do not use at high temperature
Not to be used by hypertensive patients!